Tyrone Schmidt
49 min readMay 6, 2023

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“The Black Book”

Foreword

Racism, black on black crime, police harassment, and lack of Government support are normal within urban communities. Being born with African blood is a gift. Our ancestors are the first inhabitants of earth. They were sophisticated and intelligent beings, who built empires, pyramids, discovered religions and cultivated cultures.

Personally, I grew up Christian, my mom had me baptized Methodist when I was younger. She is a strong believer in Yeshua. My grandmothers were also strong believers and regulars at church. In my life, I never needed to purchase a Bible but was favored enough to be gifted multiple, Bibles. When I was with my grandmother, we would attend church, anytime I went to see her, I would pack my formal clothes. It was also mandatory from my mother to pray and read a few verses from the Bible, daily. I believe in Yeshua, who is more commonly referred to as Jesus, today. His presence made an impact and effect on the world that is hard to ignore. Even our calendar year is based on the day of his crucifixion, we look at the world through the lens of his life. BC, refers to before Christ was born and AD, refers to after Christ was born.

How do we know what race was here first? & Where did they live? To help answer these questions we have Donald Johnson and Tom Gray to thank. They found the skeleton of the oldest human being. It is said to be more than 3 million years old. It was a prime ape like woman. She was hairier than a human but had less hair than an ape. Scientists named her “Lucy” she was found in Ethiopia; Lucy was a big discovery because it proved that humans evolved into their current form. The evolution process began in Africa. Africans then migrated into different parts of Europe, Asia & America. It was all one large landmass, making it possible to travel for those ambitious enough. This is the reason why African DNA is present in every race today. We are the first race to walk the earth yet the ones who experience the most adversity.

I decided to create something for the culture that is educational, empowering, and meaningful. There are a vast number of challenges placed in front of us, but we shall overcome. Our DNA is pure, strong & diverse. Instead of being celebrated by our peers, we are often hated and scrutinized.

​Our ancestors were mythical beings who survived on natural resources. They were the first to build, hunt, write, draw, and communicate. The only race capable to withstand the ultraviolet rays of the sun. Africa, our home is also home to exotic animals, diamonds, oil, gold, fruits & vegetables. People from all over the world visit Africa, both with positive and negative intent. Many artifacts have been taken from Africa and placed in museums around the world, without consent.

“Fear”

​They fear us. Colored people are more likely to die to the hands of police officers than any other ethnic group. Most of the time when a person of color dies because of a police officer, the officer is usually from a different race.

​ Interestingly, I have never heard of an incident where an innocent Caucasian dies to the hands of a police officer. But if you were to ask me to name an innocent-colored person that died by the hands of a police officer. I can easily name Trayvon Martin, George Floyd, Eric Garner, Gabriella Nevarez, Alton Sterling, Freddie Gray, 12-year-old Tamir Rice and the list goes on.

​But the question is, why do they fear us? The answer truly comes down to one word, stereotyping. It is human nature to see a person and to immediately categorize them in our mind. Unfortunately for us, colored people are considered “dangerous” among other things.

On numerous occasions I would be walking towards a female, and I would notice that she would clutch her purse tighter the closer she got to me. I’ve never stolen a purse in my life, but in some minds, when they imagine a purse thief, it looks something like me.

​Stereotyping is what causes the fear of colored people. Rest in peace to Tamir Rice, he was 12 years old at the time of his passing. He was holding a toy gun when a police officer shot him. The fault is most likely of the dispatcher who received the 911 call. They told officers that a black male was pointing a gun at random strangers. But the person who called 911 also said that it’s probably a fake gun & that it’s a child, both of these statements were not forwarded to the colleagues.

​Some would argue that colored people are more violent than other ethnic groups. However, what they fail to acknowledge is that the living circumstances are different within black communities. Factors like the drug-trade, contributes heavily to the violence. Whether because a person stole narcotics or because a person tried to skip out on paying a supplier. Situations like these usually turn violent and, in most cases, deadly.

​If there were better opportunities for lower class citizens, the drug trade would not seem like such a lucrative business opportunity. Poverty combined with a lack of education leads numerous individuals into a life of crime. They then acquire felonies that permit them from certain opportunities, further forcing them to continue their life of crime.

​Black people are the leading ethnic group in poverty. & Instead of coming up with ways in which they can help the black community, the government does little to nothing to help black families. While being extremely quick to highlight whatever wrong doings has been done in urban areas.

​Respect is also exceptionally important within black communities. If someone was known to have a weak personality, they will become easy prey to bullies. Therefore, disrespect is generally not tolerated. Disrespect is usually the reason behind most fights and disputes. The words “sorry” and “excuse me” go a long way and can save a situation from turning bad.

​Domestic violence also plays a role. Children that are abused at home by their parents tend to take out their anger on their peers and other people. The children that witness frequent fighting between their parents also tend to believe that fighting is normal.

“Recognition”

​Recognition and the need to be seen or heard is a problem. It is also the reason why we spend so much money, the reason why rappers incriminate themselves and the reason why people brag about their accomplishments or crimes. Many of our brothers and sisters were unfortunately, born into poverty. A circumstance that creates a deep thirst and hunger for financial wealth and material possessions. Psychologist, Ralph Smart once said, “many people spend money that they don’t have, to impress people they don’t even like”.

​Have you ever noticed the difference in races after they achieve wealth? What is it with us blacks & chains? We spent years wearing them against our will, received our freedom, and willfully bought more. I’ve never seen Bill Gates wear a gold chain or Steve Jobs in a Gucci belt. But when a person of color becomes a millionaire, you will know. They will see to it and make sure, that you know.

​The thirst for recognition is so real that rappers would intentionally incriminate themselves on records. As if they have forgotten that the police are regular people that listen to music as well. Bobbie Shmurda, Boosie Badass, YNW Melly & Young Thug are all examples of rappers whose lyrics were used against them in court.

​But rappers aren’t the only ones who like to celebrate their wrong doings and accomplishments among their peers. Teenage boys and young adult males also partake in regular bragging of their dark endeavors. Bragging about sexual encounters with peers just to be recognized as experienced with women.

​The glorification of material possessions is having a negative impact on our youth. Most kids don’t understand economics, and when they see a Lamborghini in a music video, they become infatuated. Due to the lack of education in automobiles, they immediately place the super car on their bucket list. However, they don’t know that these luxury cars are designed to tie consumers in to spending large amounts of money for service and repairs over the cars life-span.

​Rapper, Lupe Fiasco once had a Ferrari whose transmission had a problem. He took it to the mechanic and was satisfied to hear that it was a minor issue. The mechanic told him that if it was another part of the engine, it could have costed up to $50,000. After repairing the super car, he sold it the next day.

​Material possessions are actually a smoke screen and most people don’t even realize it. Would you rather someone fall in love with you, for who you are or what you have? The answer should be simple right? Luxury lifestyles creates jealousy and envy among peers which causes robberies and sometimes even death. Rest in peace to Pop Smoke who died in California after a home invasion went wrong. Rest in peace to PNB Rock who died after sustaining gunshot wounds, during an attempted robbery for his diamond chain.

​ A lot of people say that rappers rap about negative things. But what they seem to forget is that they are regular people. Who majority of the time, come from negative environments. We all have egos, but some people conceal their egos better than others. Give a person a ton of money & it will not change them, it will only magnify who they really are. Sometimes I wonder, if some rappers weren’t millionaires, could they have avoided dying during a robbery or drug overdose? Having a drug problem is one thing but having a drug problem and a lot of money is another thing. Rest in peace to Mac Miller, Pimp C, A$AP Yams, Fredo Santana, Juice Wrld, & everyone else who we lost over the years to a drug overdose or violence.

“Education”

​It is important for us to educate ourselves on our laws, family history, a trade of any kind, black freedom fighters who came before us & our culture. There is power in the knowing. The more you know, the more beneficial you become towards others and yourself as well. In the Bible, Hosea chapter 4 verse 6 it is stated that God said my people are destroyed because of a lack of knowledge.

​Firstly, by knowing the law, you can understand what your rights are and how to live accordingly. But it also gives you the opportunity to recognize when someone is abusing their power. People do not usually abuse their power intentionally. It is usually those who are uneducated, those who have been influenced by others or those with ill intent.

​If you ever find yourself in a situation where someone is abusing their power, try to record the event. This can be by means of a voice recording, video or even having a witness present. This way you can prove to a judge, lawyers, or other relevant individuals what occurred.

​Secondly, learning a trade of any kind is very beneficial. By learning a trade, you create the opportunity to render services, earn residual income, avoid employers taxes, determine your price & workdays. Carpenters, plumbers, and barbers are a few examples of occupations that operate independently & don’t require years of education to achieve. Which allows them the opportunity to generate an additional stream of income, legally.

​Thirdly, our family’s history is also very important. In order to understand who, we are, we must also understand our family. Are things such as diabetes, alcoholism or cancer common in our family? These are important questions to ask. Because by identifying our family’s weaknesses, we can help prevent the spread of illnesses and bad habits.

​Lastly, knowing the history of the black freedom fighters that came before us. They fought hard for us to enjoy the freedom we have today. People like Malcolm X, Martin Luther King & Nelson Mandela were hated and became people of interest to local authorities. Not because they were violent, but because they were trying to unify and empower our people. Certain establishments fear us so much they create agendas to exploit, destroy & depress us.

​As a black person we cannot rely on the educational systems alone to give us the necessary education we need. Because they never gave us information about where we came from or culture after they brought us to different parts of the world. They instead gave us new culture, religion, & names. It is obvious they were not concerned with preserving our traditions. It is up to us to find the truth of our lives.

​The FBI created a program called the “Counterintelligence Program” this program was designed to disrupt, misdirect, and neutralize chosen organizations. Commonly referred to as “COINTELPRO”. This special unit took an interest to African Americans who were non-violent and active members in the liberation of African Americans.

​Malcom X was a target of COINTELPRO. The bureau documented in their files that they were trying to widen the rift between him & Elijah Muhammad. They achieved this by publishing news articles, instigating, and pouring gasoline on the feud between the two Muslims. Malcolm X was, unfortunately, later assassinated by one of Elijah Muhammad’s followers.

​COINTELPRO is also responsible for bugging Dr. Kings house and wiretapping his hotel room. They sent him an anonymous letter where they asked him to commit suicide and threatened to expose his extra-marital affairs. Mr. King was unfortunately, assassinated outside the same hotel room.

​A Caucasian called James Earl was convicted for the assassination of Mr. King but always maintained his innocence. James says he was ordered by an unknown person over the telephone to place a gun and other items at a specific location at a specific time. He claims that he was framed for the assassination of Mr. King. & Suspiciously enough, his lawyer was frequently caught changing his statements when asked about the case. Law enforcement did little to nothing, to find the real killer of Mr. King & James Earl died in prison, maybe, an innocent man. ​

​Officers claimed that James shot Mr. King from a motel window but witnesses on the scene and forensic specialists disagreed. King’s entourage said the shot came from a sniper. The shooter shot one bullet and it hit Doctor King in the head, which clearly shows that it was done by a professional.

Dr. King was the youngest man to receive the noble peace prize, awarded for his nonviolent protests. He was a Baptist preacher who owned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology. Education was important for Dr. King, he was frequently invited to schools, specifically universities, to talk to students.

“Segregation”

​We are in several ways a divided people. Divided geographically, by ego, gangs, religion, culture and language. Segregation makes it unfortunately, easier for us to remain oppressed. We were stolen from Africa and brought to different parts of the world. ​

We were given new names and transported to a foreign land. After the slave trade ended in 1865, we received no large payout, no information about our ancestors or where we came from. We overcame a negative situation and worked until we earned everything that we have today.

​Our mother land, Africa, has also changed immensely. Titanic plates are shifting, rivers are appearing & land has become scarred searching for natural gems such as gasoline, diamonds, and gold. Europeans tried to claim the land for themselves, in an act they called “colonization”. The decolonization of Africa began in 1980 but has not completed, entirely. South Africa still remains home to a large European population & many countries in Africa are still under European control.

​Ego is another divider. Pride comes natural to us, and we don’t generally believe that the grass is greener on the other side. African Americans consider themselves different from colored people from England. Caribbean natives consider themselves different from Africans. Countries in Africa consider themselves different from their neighbors. Culture and language also play a role, people usually view things that are different as strange. But it should not deter from the fact that we are all the same. We all possess melanin, experience the same stereotypes, and face common problems.

​Let’s look at the science behind gangs. Neighborhood gangs are seen by law enforcement and others as small terrorist groups. However, they have never lived in an impoverished area. So, it is logical for them to not understand ghetto culture. Our first best friends usually stem from our neighborhood. After school we play outside in the neighborhood. & When we are going out there’s a high chance that we might bring someone from the neighborhood. If a fight happens? Who might help me? Most probably, someone from the neighborhood.

​It is also common for neighborhood residents to rename their neighborhood. They would distinguish themselves with specific handshakes and colors. Gangs were initially made to protect the neighborhood from things such as burglars and to weed out bullies.

It is a fact, that when two gangs are at odds the chance of chaos is very high. The world is filled with a variety of people, all with different personalities. A gang of 50 members can be at odds with another gang of 50 members.

​& when 1 person takes it upon himself to commit a murder. That one decision creates a cycle that is irreversible for the other 99 members. It effects the gang who experienced the loss. Because this was a person they knew, talked to and most likely will want to avenge. But the opposing gang will also be affected. They will receive pressure from local authorities and also paranoia from the probability of revenge.

​In the face of a crisis, social injustice or police brutality. We stand together. However, if we can find a way to always stick together, we will truly be, unstoppable. It starts with black love, we are not enemies, we are the same, we are one.

“Sufficiency”

​European scholars wrote books and novels and in between the lines drew a picture of white supremacy. The Christian religion was under heavy scrutiny in the early 1930’s for this exact same reason. This scrutiny led to the birth of the Nation of Islam. The Nation was commonly referred to as the religion for the black man in the time. It welcomed members such as Malcolm Little & Cassius Clay who changed their names after joining.

​Too many of our sisters live by white beauty standards. It is common for colored women to put chemicals in their hair for softer hair. Other women would iron their hair to make appear it flat. There is nothing wrong with modifying the natural state of your hair. However, you should know that your hair is part of what distinguishes you from others. Why is it that it seems as if we are sometimes so afraid to embrace our nappy hair? What happened to the pride we took in wearing our afros? Some even refer to it as “good hair” when a person has soft hair these days. As if having hard hair is a sign of bad hair. Which is false, because our nappy hair, knots naturally and creates locks with no chemicals needed. A healthy natural hairstyle that is low maintenance and can be designed in many ways. It is not as if we don’t have options. Our culture offers a wide variety of hairstyles such as locks, bantu knots, afros, braids, cornrows, twists, finger coils, curls, buns, puffs and more.

​The reason they chose to enslave Africa, was because of the immense strength we possess as a people. We are hard workers, but we are also a soulful people. Slavery was already present in Africa, but slaves were treated well and with respect. There were even laws made to protect slaves from ill treatment.

Slavery was as a form of punishment, for captives of war and solace for orphans. Europeans visited Africa, asked if they would have been able to purchase a few slaves and our forefathers agreed. There were also many slaves that were kidnapped and some that were tricked. While working as slaves’ our forefathers and mothers would sing as they did the labor. This slow, deep, emotional singing gave birth to what we call the blues, today. Other than the blues, we are also responsible for the creation of Afrobeats, Amapiano, Calypso, Dancehall, Gospel, Hip-hop, Jazz, Reggae, R&B, Soul, Soca and more.

​Soul food is a term that describes food so delicious that it feels as if it touches your soul. This style of cooking was created by blacks in the South of the United States. It was common and no secret that we were good with food. That’s why European companies would put colored people, mainly women, on their packaging. Because food coming from a black kitchen was considered, a luxury.

​Dark complexions are sometimes made fun of by other people of color. An act which is a disgrace and needs to stop. How can we put an end to racism if we are also being racist to each other? It’s a shame. How dare we hate on the amount of melanin that lays within someone else’s skin?

​We live in a modern world. But if all electricity were to stop working. Black families would still prevail. Because we possess the necessary knowledge to sustain ourselves. Washing clothes by hand and cooking outside are things still being done today in 2022 by blacks who have electricity.

​We are more than enough; we are an abundance. An abundance of strength, soul and wisdom. The only humans whose melanin allows them to stay outside in the sun and not become burned. With a culture so beautiful it created music genres, fashion trends and foods popular today.

“Exploitation”

​With the rise in “soul food” business owners realized that “delicious foods” were quickly becoming synonymous with black culture. Frank Brown is known as the colored man posing on the packaging of the famous “Uncle Ben’s rice”. Frank was paid $50 by the rice company to use his face and he never received any additional payments. Uncle Ben’s rice went on to become a success and it became the bestselling rice from 1950 to 1990.

​The Quaker company is currently changing the name of their “Aunt Jemima” syrup. The company acknowledges that the origins were based on a racist folklore. In a 2015 article in the New York times, Professor Richardson stated that the name came from an old Minstrel song. “Old aunt Jemima” where white actors would wear black face and mock black people.

​The lady who posed as Aunt Jemima was Nancy Green and she was a slave until the Civil War granted her freedom. She died on, August 30th, 1923. She was unfortunately, buried without a headstone. Sherry Williams took 15 years to find Nancy Green’s resting place. After finding the resting place of Nancy Green, she requested permission and was approved by officials to place a headstone on the grave.

​Williams reached out to the Quaker company and asked if they would donate and help them purchase a headstone. The Quaker company declined and said that Nancy Green and Aunt Jemima weren’t the same person. Aunt Jemima was a fictional character they stated. But in 1890, she was hired by the R.T Williams company who was looking for a mother figure for their new pancake mix. R.T Williams later sold the pancake mix to the Quaker company. Thankfully, Nancy Green received a headstone on September 5th, 2020, thanks to Ms. Williams.

​Colored people around the world drink Jack Daniels whiskey with soda or pure with ice, on the rocks, some would call it. But what is the origin of the whiskey and who was the inventor? The person you have to thank for Jack Daniels whiskey is Nathan “Nearest” Green.

​Green was a colored man born into slavery and freed after the Civil War. He taught Jack Daniels how to make whiskey. Jack Daniels then opened up a whiskey business and made Nathan the master distiller. Nathan eventually created his own line of whiskey called “Uncle Nearest Premium Whiskey”.

​Miss Childress was a colored woman living in the southern part of the United States. She was famous for her fried chicken. Colonel Sanders used Miss Childress recipe and started a fast-food restaurant. After opening the fast-food chain, he gave Miss Childress $1200. This fast-food restaurant is Kentucky Fried Chicken, one of the largest fast-food franchises today.

​Since 1933, immigrants are being received in the Dominican Republic from Haiti mainly to work the sugar cane fields. The immigrants are usually housed in small villages close to the plantations and these villages sometimes lack basic health facilities. In these villages Haitians would be paid less than $2 an hour for a 12-hour workday. Because the Haitians are living on a working permit, their children are often denied citizenship, schooling and public services.

​In West Africa more than 1 million children are employed working on Cocoa farms. They are working with sharp tools, dangerous chemicals and carrying heavy loads. And unfortunately, as cocoa sales increase, so will child labor. Hopefully, the wages for cocoa will raise, so that it can balance out the high risk.

“The enemy’s plan”

​The enemy has multiple plans. They plan to keep us uneducated, hide our history, maintain control of the media, increase their market shares, create an illusion that we are appreciated, keep us institutionalized and promote self-destructive behavior such as drinking, smoking & violence.

​By keeping us uneducated about our history they can focus on building and strengthening their supremacy. For example, when showing picture of angels in heaven people of color are not to be seen. Also, the first colored dolls were created in 1908 while the creations of dolls date back to 200 years BC.

​Processed foods are becoming increasingly available. At my local supermarket, a pack of kiwi costs 4 euros but 2 cheeseburgers cost 1 euro. Processed foods pose health risks like cancer and diabetes but are unfortunately becoming increasingly popular and affordable. Organic food on the other hand is becoming more expensive and scarcer.

​Black History month is a tradition made to show appreciation to black culture, black legends, & black people. The tradition is however only recognized by a hand full of countries. Namely, Africa, The Caribbean the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, & the Netherlands. What other race had such a prolific history? Who were the first species to walk the planet? Which ethnic groups culture spread into various communities? One would assume that the respect would be global, but it is not the case.

​ Some private prisons are paid $150 per day, per prisoner according to Investopedia.com. However, it seems as if the money is shared vastly with the employees and not with the inmates. Food isn’t luxurious and sleeping amenities are low quality. They call them correctional facilities, but these institutions don’t correct anything. Majority of the inmates usually return outside with trauma rather than tranquility. Misconduct and excessive force are regularly practiced on prisoners by prison guards. Some prisons have poor surveillances and incidents that occur in the night are only uncovered in the morning.

​Kool the cigarette company, created by Brown & Williamson started “Kool Jazz Concerts” in 1975. In 2004, Kool, tried to sell their cigarettes by implementing Hip-Hop culture into their marketing, they called it the “Kool Mix”. Community activists and tobacco control advocates, including the National African American Tobacco Prevention Network wrote to Brown & Williamson asking them to terminate the “Kool Mix” campaign. Because of the inappropriate marketing to youth and several violations of the Master Settlement Agreement. In June of 2004, the New York Supreme Court issued a restraining order prohibiting majority of the Kool campaign leading to the recall of the “Kool Mix” cigarette packs entirely.

“P.T.S.D”

Post-traumatic stress disorder commonly referred to as P.T.S.D is an anxiety disorder that effects people who have been in extremely stressful situation. It is a feeling of intense sadness, anger, anxiety, or fear accompanied with flashbacks which causes people to act estranged, detached or panic.

Soldiers and police officers experience P.T.S.D the most. Upon being diagnosed with P.T.S.D, soldiers & police officers would receive free therapy and counseling via healthcare. Because it was understood and treated with immense care. However, there is another group of people on the battlefield that are too frequently forgotten. Another group of people exposed to extremely stressful situations. & Those are, the colored people in the race war.

My heart goes out to my colored sisters who are lusted upon by men. She’s filled with melanin and can withstand the rays of the sun. Women so close to nature that her body grows like a tree, plant, or flower. They admire her roots and the way her legs look in boots. However, majority of colored women fear going out alone at night to unfamiliar places. Due to experiences that they have had in their own lives. Instead of going to a therapist, our sisters deem that it is normal for attractive women, they may talk about it amongst friends, but it ends there. Women who are raped usually tend to keep it a secret because they fear the repercussions or stigma associated with the situation.

My heart goes out to my colored brothers who are residing in overpopulated low-income areas. A bucket filled with crabs where people pull and grab those above them for an opportunity to elevate. Robberies, theft and breaking into homes are a norm. The feeling of unprotection creates the need to become overly cautious. Some going the extent of preparing themselves for acts of war.

My heart goes out to the young colored girls whose father wasn’t around with a mother addicted to toxic men. Frequent arguments, molestation, deceit, lies, and stealing are things that may lead one to believe that all men are toxic. Not realizing that it is a specific type that her mother was attracted to. & Only a small percentage of the of men in the world.

My heart goes out to the colored men with pure hearts. Fake friends act like vampires waiting for the perfect moment to drink from their veins. Those who think positively tend to believe that others will do the same. Blind to the fact that the world is a vast place filled with different personalities, perspectives and characteristics.

“The secret hand”

The hand that that we don’t see is usually the hand that we don’t expect. You won’t expect a parent to deliberately put their child in danger for any apparent reason. You won’t expect a teacher to teach a child false information in a classroom. But the world is a complex place. It is illegal for you to cause physical harm to another person, but it is legal for your country to go to war. With great power comes great responsibility, and those who are assigned to be in control are also human & therefore, flawed.

Most people enjoy the luxury of financial freedom, equivalating their happiness to the amount of money they have sitting in their bank account. The narcotics industry is lucrative due to the high demand for escape and coping mechanisms in life. Drugs are illegal in majority of the world and a few places have begun to legalize cannabis. Some people, however, can’t resist the money associated with narcotics. Even the ones who were supposed to be preventing the spread of narcotics join the market for financial reasons.

One of the hotspots for crack cocaine was Los Angeles. Wherever there is a lot of narcotics there is a lot of money involved. Gary Webb wrote in a news article that during the 1980’s, a well-known law agency helped finance its hidden war against Nicaraguan government with proceeds of drugs sales. The cocaine flowing through the city of Los Angeles created a drug war and gang members would sometimes purchase automatic weapons from government workers. News outlets contested the article claiming that the article was based on false information.

An American who was caught trying to deliver supplies to rebels claimed that his flights were directly supervised by members of a well-known agency. The man then named 2 officials and gave a detailed recollection of their operation. Several documents were taken from the plane, including Salvadorian Air Force Identity cards. However, Salvadorian military officers and Government officials said they weren’t aware of these operations. Celerino Castillo reported to his fellow DEA members that cocaine was being held at the air force base & was suspiciously, fired, shortly after.

Former CIA agent Michael Hand was arrested at the age of 73 after being on the run. He created the Nugan Hand Bank together with Frank Nugan. A bank that financed drug trafficking, money laundering, and international arms dealing. Mr. Hand disappeared in June 1980 following the collapse of the bank which had debts of more than 50 million. Mr. Nugan committed suicide in his Mercedes Benz, he was found by authorities with a rifle beside him. The coroner ruled it a suicide. When Mr. Hand was found, he was living under a fake name, Michael Fuller.

“Conspiracy”

Refers to the secret plan of someone or group to do something unlawful, harmful or the action of plotting. Conspiracy theories challenge the status quo and encourage us to think outside of the box. Some theories are unproven while others are widely known and accepted. Let’s investigate some popular conspiracies.

​Why did Michael Jackson die? Drug overdose? Who gave him drugs? His personal doctor? Why would his personal doctor try to poison him? This situation seems not so likely to happen. Because doctors earn money from their patients; one dead patient means one less customer. However, what if someone else wanted the singer to have an early demise, someone with authority. His personal doctor is now serving a jail sentence because of the murder, but is he the real suspect, or is he just a pawn on a bigger chest board?

There is poverty throughout the entire world, but if we listen to the media, there are certain areas that have more famine than others. The media portrays Africa as a continent that is drowning in poverty. Encouraging people to donate financially to help Africa fight against poverty. But is this money going toward African families or is the money going to a corporation?

Gentrification is the act of increasing accommodation costs in a specific neighborhood to change its character. Its goal is usually to lessen crime and traffic while increasing capitalism. However, the people forced to leave the area aren’t given an ultimatum and usually end up displaced. The largest housing project in America was the Cabrini Green projects in Chicago before it was demolished.

The projects received negative media attention due to its unlivable conditions and horrific acts of violence. In 1992, Dantrell Davis was shot by a stray bullet while walking with his mother, he died at the age of 7. The demolition of the projects displaced drug dealers, gangsters & single mothers in Chicago. Causing crime, violence, and mayhem to spread to different corners of the city as former Cabrini Green residents search for new accommodation. As the crime rose in different parts of the city, gentrification rose as well. Gentrification is not a cure for crime, it only forces residents to move & displaces families. While bringing in money for real estate agencies and banks.

“Pharmaceutical companies”

​God has given us two legs because one leg would be less successful in its endeavors. He also gave us two eyes, because two eyes see more than one. Likewise for animals, animals who are prey, such as chicken and gazelle have eyes on both sides of the head to see around them. Hunting animals have eyes placed on the front of their heads to see how far away the prey is. Our God is not a God who gives us things we don’t need. Many minerals, vitamins, and medicines can be found in nature. There are many doctors who offer plant-based medicines and herbal treatments, but they are hardly discussed.

​Vitamin supplements are supposed to boost your immune system. But majority of them cannot be taken on an empty stomach. Pain killers are the same, they also are recommended to be consumed during or after a meal. They both come with rules for consumption to ensure safe use. Fruits also provide vitamins, antioxidants and can be consumed as desired. The same goes for vegetables.

​Plant based medicines and doctors are a threat to pharmaceutical companies. They undermine their teachings and stunt their profits. Rest in peace to Doctor Sebi, a herbal doctor who was arrested after being accused of money laundering. They held the 82-year-old in custody for weeks, until he caught pneumonia and later died of his complications. The supreme court saw 2781 cases where people challenged his doctor title and teachings. But Sebi always came out victorious.

​During the Covid-19 pandemic it was illegal to post anything online about Covid. While vaccines were being created by various companies across the world. According to reliefweb, Moderna, Pfizer & BioNtech made roughly $34 billion in profit, before taxes in 2021. It seems as if vaccines were becoming a lucrative business. But for everything to go as planned, for the vaccine companies and those with shares in them. They needed the public to fear, therefore for a period, Covid was more discussed than cancer, aids, and pneumonia.

“The fight for liberty”

The fight for our independence will not be an easy one. Our land in Africa is rich and filled with natural resources. The Caribbean has natural attractions such as beaches, rivers, and volcanos, that attract tourists from all over the world. These entities are aware of the benefits we possess and therefore want to keep us under their control via colonization.

For the revolution to take place we must first separate ourselves from the European entities that colonized us. Politically, financially, and spiritually they have groomed us. It is easier said than done. Our politicians enjoy the support they receive every blue-moon from their European friends. Even though they have different views, the lust for money keeps them tied together in a love-hate relationship. Being able to ask and receive money is a primary concern for most them . As long as money is coming in, many are proud to be puppets for Europe.

Our race is so self-less, we support everyone, even those who despise us. We wear Italian clothes, American shoes, eat Chinese food & drive German cars. Even those living in impoverished areas have designer clothes, jewelry, and sport cars. Giving our financial resources to other countries that don’t care or share with us.

We are all aware of the efforts made to keep us out of history. Africa has had many religions. These religions were never thoroughly documented or researched by western media. Religion was above the law in the past. Many have died, due to differences in religious views.

Our European friends are rich enough to build airplanes, cars & spaceships. But refuse to help our family and places they colonized. Some western companies make “Feed the children campaigns”. Basically, asking money from the poor, to feed the poor. As if money acquired by tax couldn’t contribute to improve the infrastructure, communities & towns of Colonized countries.

If they truly cared, we would have seen more improvements in Africa and the Caribbean. However, we cannot wait for them. We need to be the ones to invest in our land, people, and culture. Who better to take care of a land than the people who grew up there? The people whose ancestors grew up there. People whose history is tied to the land. If we don’t move fast, we will create the opportunity to lose our land to foreigners.

“Ownership”

The goal is ownership. By owning the websites, businesses, and media platforms, we will be creating an eco-system for us, where we can’t be silenced. There are numerous colored individuals and organizations that left a legacy to be remembered. We commend you and the effort you’ve put forward for the emancipation of our people.

Thank you, Tyler Perry, for creating the Tyler Perry studios. 330 acres which is bigger than a lot of film studios. Thank you, to Vincent Leaphart who created the Christian Movement for life in Philadelphia. They held numerous protests, against animal cruelty. Thank you to the Black Panther Party, and their free breakfast programs for the youth. Thank you to Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which fostered restaurants and shopping centers to encourage black economic independence. Thank you to Oprah Winfrey, for creating the Oprah Winfrey show where she shares prizes and valuable information.

Many people are going back to Africa, purchasing land, businesses and building homes. Honestly, I encourage my friends and family to do the same. The prices are low, and some areas accept rent annually. Making it plausible to start a business on the continent.

Musically, we are not in the era of music labels, the birth of the internet gave us the tools to engineer our own success. A record label can drop you whenever. Not to mention, they are paid a percentage of the artists revenue. Some labels even go as far as, dictating the content, message, and style of the project.

In terms of food, I encourage those who have the room to plant to do so. Plant vegetables, lemon grass, herbs if possible. That way, you know your food is 100% biological, because you saw its evolution. Not everything labeled biological is 100% biological. Especially in hair products, many greases damage the hair, because of pomade and perfume. Use pure biological oils, and you will notice a difference. If there isn’t a store in town that sells the oil you are looking for, research how to make the oil yourself. The process is usually quite simple.

“A place to call home”

To my brothers and sisters experiencing racism in different parts of the world, we love you. Our ancestors and angels standby you, you are never alone. In fact, you are surrounded by angels and ancestors. The Caribbean and Africa will always provide you with a place to call home. A place where you will not be judged by the color of your skin. Our home should feel cozy and should not be accompanied by frequent weird stares or looks.

It is also very important to not forget our parents. The same way they did for us, it is only right that we do for them. Taking care of them, as they rise in age. There are few places that can touch the soul the way a trip back home does. The memories and familiar places, remind us of the true simplicity of life.

& In the home, we make the first examples to our offspring, so be mindful! The habits and rituals parents do are prone to be copied by their youth. As men, we should not cheat or lust after women. It is important that we show our sons the proper way to love a woman. If the son witnesses his father committing adultery he may fall victim to the same circumstances in the future, thinking that it’s normal. Women should honor and show interest in her partner. Because her daughter is watching and needs the right example from at home.

Our children are not made by us, they are made by God, however, they do come through us. Some parents make the mistake and plan the child’s life without confronting the child. Acting in this manner is not empowering. We should take the time to get to know our child. Because God gives every child unique gift, and it is our goals as a parent to uncover what their gifts are.

Love is the highest frequency; no feeling can compare to finding and being loved. Unfortunately, absent fathers are frequent in colored families. The absence of fathers isn’t a simple problem, but a complex one. Men and women are wired differently. It’s almost as if we came from 2 separate planets and met here to create a new one.

Together we create balance in the household. One that is strong accompanied by one that is nurturing. A protector and a caregiver. Having a successful relationship is challenging. Just as any union, it will face hardships, disagreements, and fights. Friendships end, contracts are terminated, and relationships are not excluded. Which leads me to ask, what is love? Some people believe that love is the butterfly feeling in the stomach. I believe love was best described in the bible in Corinthians chapter 13 verse 5.

Love is patient, love is kind. Love does not envy or boast. It is not arrogant or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrongdoings but rejoices with the truth.

Harriet Tubman

Born Araminta Ross

March 1822 – March 10, 1913

Born into slavery, Ross was frequently beaten and whipped by different slave masters as a child. She once suffered a head injury when an angry bystander threw a heavy metal weight intended to hit someone close to her and missed. Shortly after her injury, she started experiencing strange visions and vivid dreams which she claimed to be premonitions from God. Her experiences, visions and Methodist upbringing made her strongly religious.

In 1849 she escaped enslavement and went to Philadelphia shortly after she returned, to rescue her family. Slowly one group at a time she helped her family and dozens of slaves escape. During her missions that usually took place at night and we’re extremely secret, she never lost a slave. Her frequent successes with the emancipation of slaves earned her the nickname “Moses” among the masses.

The Government passed a law into motion called “the fugitive slave act”. It required that all escaped slaves upon capture be returned to the slave master and that officials and citizens had to cooperate. Anyone aiding or helping runaway slaves will be considered guilty of breaking the law.

Despite the new fugitive slave act law, she helped guide runaway slaves into Canada, recruited supporters for the 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry and was th first female to lead an armed expedition in the Civil War to Combahee Ferry which freed more than 700 slaves.

Fred Hampton

Born Fredrick Allen Hampton

August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969

At 10 years old he started hosting weekend breakfast programs for children in his neighborhood where he made the food himself. He organized and conducted marches protesting against racial injustices and discrimination. Graduated high school with honor and received the junior achievement award. Additionally, he fought hard to get more and better recreational facilities established in the neighborhood and tried to force the government to improve educational resources for Maywood’s impoverished black community.

Hampton also taught political education classes every morning at 6. He is also responsible for launching a project for community supervision of the police. He was brutally murdered by police officers without justification. His son, Fredrick Hampton Junior continued his father’s breakfast program and is an active Pan-Africanist living in America.

Booker T. Washington

(April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915)

Born into slavery and a part of the last generation slaves, Booker saw both sides of the fence. He was both a free man and a slave. Fortunate to witness freedom after the Civil War granted emancipation for all slaves. He moved to West Virginia with his family after being freed.

In 1881 he became the leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama now known as the Tuskegee University. He helped. beautify the establishment with the help of a few helping students willing to do construction.

As lynchings in the south reached a peak in 1985. Washington gave a speech, known as the “Atlanta compromise” which brought him national fame. In additions to his contribution to education he has written 14 books, helped blacks in the field of education which led to more blacks being able to support the Civil rights movement.

Marcus Josiah Garvey Sr.

17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940

Born in Saint Ann’s Bay, Jamaica. As a teenager he held a job in the print field. While working in Kingston he joined labor unions. Garvey lived in Costa Rica, Panama and England. After he returned to Jamaica, he made the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914.

He moved to the United States and established a UNIA branch in New York City’s Harlem district. Emphasis unity between Africans and African descendants. Garvey also campaigned for an end to European colonial rule across Africa and advocated the political unification of the continent. His dream was to unify Africa as a one party state, governed by himself.

He believed that black people had to be financially independent from Caucasians and their countries. Garvey created the Negro Factories Corporation and Negro World newspaper. In 1919, he became President of the Black Star Line shipping and passenger company. Designed to make a link between North America and Africa to further facilitate African-American migration to Liberia.

Toussaint Louverture

(Born Dominique Toussaint Louverture a.k.a Toussaint Breda)

May 20, 1743 – April 7, 1803

Louverture was born enslaved on Haiti. He managed to emancipate himself before the revolution and had various jobs. Breda worked as a planter, miller, coachman and even managed slaves for a period of time. At the start of the Haitian revolution, he was almost 50 and a lieutenant in the military. Breda gradually established control over the whole island and used his political and military influence to gain dominance over his rivals.

He restored the plantation using paid labor and maintained a large and well trained army. Breda died before the final and most violent stage of the Haitian revolution. But his work and achievements set the ground for the Haitian army’s final victory.

The revolution continued under the leading supervision of Breda’s lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Who declared independence and emancipation of all slaves on 1 January 1804.

Samuel Cooke

(Known as Sam Cooke)

January 22, 1931 – December 11, 1964

Born in Mississippi and later relocated to Chicago with his family at a young age where he began singing and joined the soul stirrers as lead singer in the 1950’s. During his 8 year career Cooke released 29 singles that charted in the top 40 of the billboard pop singles chart. & 20 singles in the top 10 of billboard’s black singles chart.

In 1950 Cooke replaced gospel tenor R.H Harris as lead singer of the gospel group “Soul stirrers”. Harris was the founder of the group and only gave Cooke the position due to his undeniable talent. Many people accredit Cooke with starting the Afro trend.

In the 1950’s many blacks were straightening their hair to look like Caucasian hair, especially public figures and entertainers. Sam wore his hair natural and said it was a form of racial pride. An action that encouraged others to do the same.

Elijah Muhammad

(Born Elijah Robert Poole)

October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975

Elijah’s education ended in fourth grade after which he went to work in Sawmills and brick yards. He also worked as a sharecropper to support his family. When he was 16 he left home and started working at Factories and other businesses.

In Detroit, Elijah began taking part in various black nationalist movements. In August, Elijah attended an Island speech where he was later approached by Wallace Fard. Fard told Elijah that he was the redeemer but his time hadn’t come yet. Soon after Elijah received a Muslim surname, Karriem and later Muhammad.

He assumed lead position of the Nation of Islam temple of Chicago and later over the one in Detroit as well. In 1934, Wallace Fard disappeared. Elijah succeeded him and was declared minister of Islam. Elijah believes and proclaimed that Allah came as Wallace Fard in the flesh, to share his teachings.

In 1934, the Nation of Islam published it’s first newspaper, “Final call to Islam” to educate and build membership. Elijah Muhammad’s program for economic development played a large part in the growth in the Nation of Islam. He purchased land and businesses to provide housing and employment for young black males. By the 1970’s, the Nation of Islam owned bakeries, barber shops, coffee shops, grocery stores, laundromats, night-clubs, a printing plant, retail stores, numerous real estate holdings, and a fleet of tractors and farmland.

Martin Luther King Jr.

(Born Michael King)

January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968

King was born the son of the activist, Martin Luther King senior. Michael participated in and led marches for the right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other civil rights. He oversaw the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and later became the president of the South Christian Leadership Conference.

Michael was one of the leaders on the 1963 March in Washington where he performed his famous “I have a dream speech” on the steps of the Lincoln memorial. The civil rights movement achieved success and secured new laws such as the civil rights act 1964, voting rights act of 1965 and the fair housing act of 1968.

On October 19, 1964 King won the Nobel peace prize for his nonviolent protest tactic against racial inequality. In his final days he expanded his focus to include poverty, capitalism and the Vietnam war. In 1968, he was planning a national occupation of Washington D.C, to be called the Poor People’s Campaign.

After his assassination, his death was followed by national mourning as well as anger that led to riots in various American cities.

Zack Stoner

March 25, 1990 – May 30, 2018

The official founder of Zacktv1 YouTube channel. He started out making random vlogs in 2009. But his channel grew to include neighborhood documentaries of Chicago, music videos, rising artists interviews & more.

Zacktv provided a platform that was raw, uncut and gave artists a voice. Unfortunately, most of his interviewees died of gunfire or violence. Zack would later also fall victim to the same faith. He attended a show in Chicago to support AMG Fresh.

After noticing individuals that wanted to harm Fresh, he tried to persuade Fresh to leave. But Fresh’s girlfriend was celebrating her birthday and Zack was not able to voice his concerns quick enough. He stayed until after the show and waited for Fresh and was unfortunately caught in between the crossfire.

Fela Kuti

(Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti a.k.a. Abami Eda)

October 15, 1938 – August 2, 1997

Fela is the son of a Nigerian women’s rights activist Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti. His father Israel Oludotun Ransome-Kuti was a minister, school principal and first principal of the Nigeria Union of Teachers. Two of Felas’ are became medical doctors. Fela is cousins with Wole Soyinka, who has a Nobel prize in literature.

I’m 1958, he was sent to London to study medicine, but decided to study music instead. The trumpet was his instrument of choice. In school, he formed a music group called Koola Lobitos which played fusion of jazz and highlife. In 1963 he moved back to Nigeria and reformed Koola Lobitos. He also trained to become a radio producer for the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation.

In 1967, Fela traveled to Ghana.& He called his music Afro beat, it was a combination of highlife, funk, jazz, salsa, Calypso and traditional Yoruba music. In 1969, he went to America and had the privilege to meet with Sandra Smith who introduced him to the Black Panther Party.

Upon returning to Nigeria in 1970, his music became less about love and more about social issues. He built the Kalakuta republic, a commune, recording studio & home which he later declared independent from Nigeria. Fela was loved by the ladies, he had 27 wives. & In 1979, he formed the political party, movement of the people. With the slogan “clean up society like a mop”.

Tupac Amaru Shakur

(Lesane Parish Crooks a.k.a 2pac or Makaveli)

June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996

Born in New York to parents who were both Black Panther members & political activists. A month before Shakur’s birth, his mother was tried in New York City as part of the Panther 21 criminal trial. She was luckily acquitted of over 150 charges. Shakur’s stepfather, Mutulu Shakur, spent four years on the FBI’s Most Wanted list. Lesane was named after Túpac Amaru II, the descendant of the last Incan ruler. Shakur’s mother Afeni Shakur explained, “I wanted him to have the name of a revolutionary, indigenous people in the world. I wanted him to know he was part of a world culture and not just from a neighborhood.”

Shakur’s godfather, Elmer “Geronimo” Pratt, a high-ranking Black Panther, was falsely convicted of murdering a school teacher during a 1968 robbery. After spending 27 years in prison, his conviction was overturned due to the prosecution’s having concealed evidence that proved his innocence.

On October 31, 1993, Shakur was arrested in Atlanta for shooting two off-duty police officers, brothers Mark Whitwell and Scott Whitwell. The Whitwells were harassing a black motorist and using racial slurs. According to witnesses, Shakur and his entourage had fired in self-defense as Mark Whitwell shot at them first. Mark Whitwell was charged with firing at Shakur’s car and later with making false statements to investigators. In October 1991, one month before the release of 2Pacalypse Now, two Oakland Police Department officers stopped Shakur for jaywalking. The officers asked for his name and since it did not sound American, they brutalized him scratching his face over the concrete pavement. He took them to court & won the case.

He has won several music awards, acted in several movies & created timeless music in his 25 years of life.

Malik El Shabazz

(Malcolm Little known as Malcolm X)

May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965

In prison, several of his siblings wrote to him about the Nation of Islam, a relatively new religious movement preaching about black self-reliance and, ultimately, the return of African descendants to Africa, where they would be free from white American and European scrutiny. His brother Reginald wrote in 1948, “Malcolm, don’t eat any more pork and don’t smoke any more cigarettes. I’ll show you how to get out of prison”, Malik then quit smoking and began to refuse pork. Malik soon became a member of the Nation of Islam, maintaining a regular correspondence with Mr. Muhammad.

In April 1964, with financial help from his half-sister Ella, Malik flew to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as the start of his Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so. Prince Faisal had designated him as a state guest. Several days later, after completing the Hajj rituals, Malik had an audience accompanied by the prince.

Malik later said that seeing Muslims of “all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to Black-skinned Africans,” interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome. Malik became a sought fore spokesman. He was a powerful speaker, who spoke regularly at meetings and was a very sought after.

Berhane Selassie

(Robert Nesta Marley)

6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981

Considered one of the pioneers of reggae, his musical career was marked by fusing elements of reggae, ska, and rocksteady, as well as his own distinctive vocal and songwriting style. Marley’s contributions to music increased the visibility of Jamaican music worldwide, and made him a global figure in popular culture.

Awards & honors:

1976: Rolling Stone Band of the Year.

March 1994: He was added into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

1999: Album of the Century for Exodus by Time magazine.

2004: He earned of the first stars in the UK Music Hall of Fame.

2010: Catch a Fire added him into the Grammy Hall of Fame.

2022: He was added into the Black Music & Entertainment Walk of Fame.

Lucky Dube

Lucky Philip Dube

3 August 1964 – 18 October 2007

His parents separated before his birth, and he was raised by his mother, who named him Lucky because she considered his birth fortunate after a number of failed pregnancies. As a child Dube worked as a gardener but, as he matured, realizing that he wasn’t earning enough to feed his family, he began to attend school. There he joined a choir and with some friends, formed his first musical ensemble called The Skyway Band.

Dube began to note fans were responding positively to some reggae songs he played during live concerts. Drawing inspiration from Jimmy Cliff and Peter Tosh, he felt the socio-political messages associated with Jamaican reggae were relevant to a South African audience in an institutionally racist society.

Considered by many to be one of the most important musicians in the history of African dub and reggae. Lucky Dube has contributed to the South African struggle with his beautiful music. His songs addressed political issues during times of apartheid. In addition to performing music, Dube, was a sometime actor appearing in various films.

Frederick Douglass

(Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey)

February. 1818 – February 20, 1895

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Douglass first tried to escape from Freeland, who had hired him from his owner, but was unsuccessful. In 1837, Douglass met and fell in love with Anna Murray, a free black woman in Baltimore about five years his senior. Her free status strengthened his belief in the possibility of gaining his own freedom. Murray encouraged him and supported his efforts by aid and money.

On September 3, 1838, Douglass successfully escaped by boarding a northbound train of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railmoney. In 1847, Douglass started publishing his first abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

In 1848, Douglass was the only black person to attend the Seneca Falls Convention, the first women’s rights convention, in upstate New York. In the wake of the Seneca Falls Convention, Douglass used an editorial in The North Star to press the case for women’s rights.

Douglass considered photography very important in ending slavery and racism, and believed that the camera would not lie. He never smiled. He tended to look directly into the camera and confront the viewer with a stern look.

Nelson Mandela

(Rolihlahla Mandela)

10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999

In July 1952, Mandela was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act and stood trial as one of the 21 accused in Johannesburg. Found guilty of “statutory communism”, a term that the government used to describe most opposition to apartheid. The prosecution had called for the death sentence to be applied, the judge instead condemned them to life imprisonment.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. During growing domestic and international pressure and fears of racial civil war, the President released him in 1990. There was nationwide excitement and celebration after his release. Mandela became President of South Africa in 1994.

Huey Newton

(Dr. Huey Percy Newton)

February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989

After witnessing the assassination of Malik el-Shabazz. Huey Newton, Bobby Sealed and David Hillgard founded the black panther party for self defense. Newton’s party was much different from other African American associations with nationalist tendencies. Such groups tend to view all Caucasians as oppressors, whereas the black panther party distinguished between racists and non-racists.

Newton also co-founded the Black Panther newspaper service, which became one of America’s most widely distributed African-American newspapers.

The Black Panther party is also responsible for:

Challenging racism by defending minorities against police brutality.

They made a breakfast program for children in need.

They offered medical services to those who couldn’t afford it

Manufactured & distributed shoes to the less fortunate.

Provided ambulance services.

Jack Johnson

John Arthur Johnson a.k.a Galveston Giant

March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946

At the height of the Jim Crow era, Jack became the first African-American world heavyweight boxing champion from 1908 – 1915. Widely regarded as one of the most influential boxers of all time, his 1910 fight against James Jeffries was called the “fight of the century”.

In 1910, former undefeated heavyweight champion James J. Jeffries came out of retirement to challenge Johnson, saying “I am going into this fight for the sole purpose of proving that a white man is better than a Negro”. He had not fought in six years and he also had to drop over a 100 pounds in order to get back into prime fighting weight.

By the 15th round, after Jeffries had been knocked down twice for the first time in his career, Jeffries’ corner threw in the towel to end the fight and prevent Jeffries from having a knockout on his record.

Johnson later remarked that he knew the fight was over in the 4th round when he landed an uppercut and saw the look on Jeffries face, stating, “I knew what that meant, the old ship was sinking. Jeffery stated in an interview after the match, “I could even beat Johnson at my best”,

Maya Angelou

Marguerite Annie Johnson

April 4, 1928 – May 28, 2014

Maya Angelou is one of America’s most famous poets. Maya was active in the fields of theatre, acting, writing novels and also as a member of the Civil Rights movement.

Dr. Angelou received over 50 honorary degrees and more than 10 awards.

Here’s a quote from one of her famous poems:

You may write me down in history

With your bitter, twisted lies,

You may trod me in the very dirt

But still, like dust, I’ll rise.

– Maya Angelou from ‘Still I rise’

Folding cabinet bed

invented by Sarah E. Goode

In 1885, Sarah Goode became the first Black woman to receive a US patent. She moved to Chicago and opened a furniture store. It was there she came up with the idea that helped urban families with limited space.

Potato chips

Invented by George Crum

George Crum was working as a chef at Moon’s Lake House on Saratoga Lake, New York in 1853. There are conflicting stories pertaining to the invention of the potato chip. One story claims that a disgruntled customer sent back his fried potatoes because they were not crisp enough. Crum then cut the potatoes paper thin and fried them.

Another story says that a co-worker accidently dropped a small shaving of a potato into the hot oil, fished it out and ate it.

Gas Mask

Invented by Garrett Morgan

Garrett Morgan developed what he called the safety hood after noticing how many firefighters were killed by smoke on the job. The hood, which went over the head, featured tubes connected to wet sponges that filtered out smoke and provided fresh oxygen.

Protective Mailbox

Invented by Philip B. Downing

Philip B. Downing created a mailbox design that featured an outer door and an inner safety door to avoid parcels being stolen. This safety device allowed mailboxes to be set up everywhere.

Blood Bank

Invented by Charles Richard Drew

Charles Richard Drew became interested in researching the preservation of blood when he was studying at Columbia University. Drew discovered a method of separating red blood cells from plasma and then storing the two components separately. This new process allowed blood to be stored for more than a week, which was the maximum at that time. Drew documented these findings in a paper that led to the first blood bank.

Improved Ironing Board

Invented by Sarah Boone

In the late 19th century, the ironing board was improved by Sarah Boone. One of the first Black women in U.S. history to receive a patent, she created a narrower and curved design, making it easier to iron garments. Boone’s design morphed into the modern board that we use today.

Refrigerated Trucks

Invented by Frederick McKinley Jones

Frederick McKinley Jones created a roof-mounted cooling system that was used to refrigerate goods on trucks during transportation in the mid-1930s. He received a patent for his invention in 1940 and co-founded the US Thermo Control Company, later known as Thermo King.

Automatic elevator doors

Invented by Alexander Miles

Alexander Miles took out a patent in 1887 for a mechanism that automatically opens and closes elevator shaft doors. His designs are largely reflected in elevators used today.

Electret Microphone

invented by James West

Dr. James E. West co-invented a foil electret microphone, which was less expensive to produce than the typically used condenser microphones.

Super Soaker

Invented by Lonnie Johnson

Lonnie Johnson developed the water gun in his free time while working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Tissue Holder & Sanitary Belt

Invented by Mary Kenner

Mary Beatrice Davidson Kenner invented the tissue holder and the moisture proof sanitary belt for women, which later developed into the modern-day menstruation pad.

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver was an American inventor. He invented adhesives, axle grease, bleach, chili sauce, creosote, dyes, flour, instant coffee, insulating board, meat tenderizer, metal polish, milk flakes, shaving cream, shoe polish, soil conditioner, vanishing cream, & wood fillers.

Laserphaco

Invented by Patricia Bath

Patricia Bath, an ophthalmologist, and laser scientist invented a device and technique used to remove cataracts and revive patients’ eyesight.

Automatic Gear Shift

Invented by Richard Spikes

Richard Spikes created the automatic gear shift, helping people drive up hills everywhere.

Clothes dryer

Invented by George Sampson

George T. Sampson created the clothes dryer in 1892. His mother was a slave who had the responsibility of washing clothes for their mistress. After his mother passed, he refined the dryer to help his father with the laundry. Dryers in these days operated with fire & smoke which left clothes with a burnt odor. George’s invention became an instant success because the laundry didn’t possess a smokey after-smell.

Dustpan

Invented by Lloyd Ray

Lloyd P. Ray was an author and inventor who improved the dustpan in 1897. The device had a metal collection plate attached to a short wooden handle allowing trash to be swept into it.

Ice Cream Scooper

Alfred L. Cralle invented the ice cream scooper, allowing kids to have larger scoops than a spoonful.

Lawnmower

John Albert Burr fully refined the lawnmower, bringing better traction, spinning blades, and allowed cutting closer to buildings.

Lawn sprinkler

Invented by Joseph H. Smith.

Joseph was an African American scientist who invented the lawn sprinkler.

The Mop

Invented by Thomas W. Stewart.

Thomas designed a mop head that could be removed by unscrewing it from the base of the mop handle, allowing users to clean the head or discard it when wore out. He also designed a lever attached to the mop head, which when pulled, would wring water from the head without users getting their hands wet.

Reversible Baby Stroller

Invented by William H. Richardson

William Richardson created the first baby stroller with independent wheels. He used a special joint to allow a basinet to be turned to face the operator.

Traffic light

Invented by Garrett Morgan

Morgan witnessed a serious traffic accident that inspired him to update the way traffic lights alerted drivers the light was going to turn red.

The two-light system only featured a red and green light, while Morgan filed a patent for the yellow also known as the “warning” light in 1922.

Gas heating furnace

Invented by Alice H. Parker

Inspired by the ineffectiveness of her fireplace during cold New Jersey winters, Parker invented a heating system that drew in cold air and conveyed the heat through a heat exchanger.

During her time most buildings were heated with coal or wood. While her invention was not the first gas patent, it was the first to feature individually controlled air ducts that transferred heat to different parts of the building.

Home security systems

Invented by Marie Van Brittan Brown

Brown along with her husband Albert Brown, an electrician, invented the first home security system in 1966 as a solution to the high crime rate they experienced in Queens, New York.

Her invention used three peepholes to help her see through the door, a camera that could adjust from each peephole, a microphone system that allowed her to communicate with visitors, a remote control that allowed her to unlatch the door and a button that would contact the police if necessary.

Her invention paved the way for modern video monitoring, remote-controlled locks, push-button alarms, instant messaging to security providers and two-way voice communication.

Electric powered railway

Invented by Granville Woods

Woods accumulated nearly 60 patents during his lifetime, many of which improved the functioning of railroads. His most notable are the induction telegraph system, which allowed traveling trains to communicate with one another while also allowing dispatchers to locate them, and the first electricity-powered railway.

Hair growth supplements

Invented by C.J Walker

Madam C.J. Walker was the first African American woman to become a self-made millionaire after creating a line of hair products geared toward Black hair. She created the first, Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower, in 1905.

Touch tone phone

Invented by Shirley Jackson

Dr. Shirley Jackson, was the first African American woman to earn a doctorate at MIT, she is also responsible for telecommunications research that led to the invention of the touch-tone phone, portable fax, fiber optic cables, and caller ID.

Carbon light bulb

Invented by Lewis Latimer

The light bulb itself was perfected by Thomas Edison, but the innovation used to create longer-lasting light bulbs with a carbon filament came from African American inventor Lewis Latimer. Latimer, the son of formerly enslaved people, began work in a patent law firm after serving in the military for the Union during the Civil War. He was recognized for his talent drafting patents and was promoted to head draftsman, where he co-invented an improved bathroom for railroad trains as well.

Ultraviolet camera

Invented by George Carruthers

George Carruthers was awarded a patent for his “Image Converter for Detecting Electromagnetic Radiation Especially in Short Wave Lengths.” During a 1970 rocket flight, Carruthers’s UV telescope, or spectrograph, and image converter provided the first proof of the existence of molecular hydrogen in space.

Carruther’s invention was used on April 21, 1972, during the first moon walk of the Apollo 16 mission. For the first time, scientists were able to examine the Earth’s atmosphere for concentrations of pollutants, and see UV images of more than 550 stars, nebulae and galaxies. Carruthers was awarded NASA’s Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal for his work on the project.

Hypophyscope

Invented by William Harry Barnes

William Harry Barnes was an ear, nose, and throat doctor at the Frederick Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He invented a medical instrument that allowed doctors to reach the pituitary gland more easily. Found on the underside of the brain, the pea-sized pituitary gland secretes hormones directly into the blood. He called his invention a hypophyscope.

Gastroscope

Invented by Leonidas Berry

Leonidas Berry invented the Eder-Berry biopsy gastroscope in 1955. His invention made it easier for doctors to collect tissue from the inside of the stomach without surgery.

Five years after inventing his gastroscope, Dr. Berry studied the stomachs of alcoholics. He discovered that it was the liver, and not the stomach, that became diseased because of too much alcohol. This changed the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism.

Unbreakable cash register

Invented by Otis Boykin

Otis Boykin had an incredibly diverse career. He invented a machine used to control heart pacemakers, parts for guided missiles and computers, an electronic air filter, and a cash register that thieves couldn’t break into.

Weather resistant telephone wires

Invented by Walter Lincoln Hawkins

Walter Lincoln Hawkins held eighteen U.S. and 129 foreign patents, but his most famous one was for a weather-resistant plastic coating for telephone wires. Before Hawkins’s invention, telephone cables were coated with lead, making them too heavy, expensive, and toxic for general use. Hawkins’s invention increased the life of telephone wires by seventy years.

Stainless steal

Invented by James Parsons Jr.

James Parsons, Jr. did research on how to stop metals from rusting. He held several patents which led to the development of stainless steel.

Sewer drainage

Invented by Hugh M. Browne

Hugh M. Browne was a practical man, interested in improving the lives of everyday people. He invented a machine that trapped sewer water and stopped it from flowing into a house.

Wooden last

Invented by Jan Ernst Matzeliger

Jan Ernst Matzeliger invented a machine to connect the upper part of the shoe with its sole. This process is called lasting. Matzeliger’s wooden last could make 150 to 700 pairs of shoes in one day, compared to 50 pairs a day lasted by hand.

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